Dwarfism is a term used to denote short stature. Height less than 4 feet and 10 inches in termed as dwarfism, though most people suffering from dwarfism have a height around 2 feet, 8 inches.
The most common cause of dwarfism is Achondroplasia. Genetic abnormalities are the main cause of Achondroplasia. Turner syndrome is also considered as a cause of dwarfism. It is caused by a chance deletion or alteration of the X chromosome, in sperm or in the egg. The deficiency of growth hormone is also a cause of dwarfism but its causes are not clear yet.
Dwarfism can also be caused by malnutrition and deficiency of other hormones.